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Wildlife crime policy and the law : an Australian study / Don McDowell
Bib ID 2993520
Format BookBook
Author
McDowell, Don
 
Description [Canberra : Australian Govt. Pub. Service], 1997 
vi, 188 p. ; 25 cm. 
ISBN 0644476117
Full contents
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. About this assessment
  • Setting policy
  • The objectives and parameters of this study
  • 1.2. Defining the setting
  • The topic, the law and public perceptions
  • Criminals or simple wrong-doers?
  • Policies and commitment at all levels of government
  • 1.3. Methodological approach used in this study
  • Collecting both 'hard' and 'soft' data
 
Notes

Includes list of State and Territory wildlife legislation.

Bibliography; p. 185.

Subjects Australia. Wildlife Protection (Regulation of Exports and Imports) Act 1982.  |  Australia. Wildlife Protection (Regulation of Exports and Imports) Act 1982.  |  Wild animal trade -- Corrupt practices -- Australia.  |  Endangered species.  |  Endangered species -- Law and legislation -- Australia.  |  Wildlife conservation -- Law and legislation -- Australia.  |  Endangered species -- Government policy -- Australia.  |  Wild animal trade -- Australia -- Corrupt practices.  |  Smuggling -- Australia -- Prevention.  |  Wildlife conservation -- Law and legislation -- Australia.  |  Endangered species.  |  Endangered species -- Law and legislation -- Australia.  |  Smuggling -- Australia -- Prevention.
Other authors/contributors Australia. Environment Australia
Terms of Use Commonwealth of Australia 1997. 
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001 2993520
005 20180905071343.0
008 970508s1997    aca      b   f000 0 eng d
019 1 |a13179355
020 |a0644476117
035 |a(OCoLC)38977896
035 |9(AuCNLDY)2455342
040 |aACB|beng|cACB|dXNTU
042 |aanuc
043 |au-at---
082 0 4 |a639.90994|221
100 1 |aMcDowell, Don.
245 1 0 |aWildlife crime policy and the law :|ban Australian study /|cDon McDowell.
260 |a[Canberra :|bAustralian Govt. Pub. Service],|c1997.
300 |avi, 188 p. ;|c25 cm.
500 |aIncludes list of State and Territory wildlife legislation.
504 |aBibliography; p. 185.
505 0 |aChapter 1. Introduction -- 1.1. About this assessment -- Setting policy -- The objectives and parameters of this study -- 1.2. Defining the setting -- The topic, the law and public perceptions -- Criminals or simple wrong-doers? -- Policies and commitment at all levels of government -- 1.3. Methodological approach used in this study -- Collecting both 'hard' and 'soft' data -- Accessing enforcement and compliance-related data -- Client expectations and their impact on project design -- Interaction with members of the public -- Ensuring sensitivity -- Estimating the size of the problem -- ch. 2. Wildlife legislation -- 2.1. Federal and State responsibilities for the regulation of the movement of wildlife -- 2.2. The influence of historical antecedents on the development of wildlife legislation at the State level -- 2.3. The marketplace -- Efectively regulating the marketplace -- The objectives of effective regulation -- 2.4. Legislative provisions for intra-state transactions in fauna --
505 8 |a2.5. Legislative provisions for interstate transactions -- Reverse onus of proof -- The range of species available for possession -- Involvement of non-regulatory personnel in detection of trafficking -- Anomalies -- 2.6. Non-legislative administrative provisions -- Containment and monitoring of transaction provisions -- 2.7. Potential for laundering of illegal activities through a record-keeping system -- ch. 3. Wildlife enforcement: structures and mechanisms -- 3.1. The basic issues -- Defining the roles of enforcement -- Anti-crime activities v. compliance monitoring -- Differentiating between Federal and State/Territory roles -- 3.2. Federal enforcement arrangements -- Wildlife Australia -- The Australia Customs Service -- The Australian Quarantine Inspection Service -- The Australian Federal Police -- 3.3. State and Territory enforcement arrangements -- Parks and wildlife departments -- Other police forces -- The Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence --
505 8 |a3.4. International cooperative agreements: CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) -- ch. 4. Crime and wildlife -- 4.1. Illegal trading: differentiating crime and non-compliance -- Wildlife control regulations and their intent -- Permit-holders: keeping to the rules -- Opting out of the control systems -- Going beyond permit violations: the entry into crime -- 4.2. Types of offences involving Australian wildlife -- Permit violations and 'backyard trade' -- Organised illegal trading: the middle tier -- Serious, major crime activities: Australian and overseas markets -- 4.3. Smuggling exotica into Australia -- Illegal trafficking of exotica -- Potential risks to Australian wildlife, agriculture, animal and population health -- Policies, priorities and controls -- 4.4. Patterns of wildlife crime and non-compliance -- Measuring or estimating the extent of illegal activity -- Offences against Federal legislation -- Features of wildlife smuggling --
505 8 |a4.5. The elements of criminal planning -- Selection of wildlife species for collection -- Determination of their likely markets and pricing structure -- Source locations for targeted widlife species -- Availability of skilled and experience participants -- Recruitment of 'support' participants -- Maps, sketches and photos of collection sites -- Local knowledge -- Travel arrangements: bases, staging points and collection sites -- Communication systems -- Concealment methods and special equipment needs - 4.6. Moving into crime -- Preparation, organisation and motivation -- 4.7. Facilitating conditions for wildlife crime -- Legislative gaps and inconsistencies -- Priority and resource differences between agencies -- Illegal focus on 'desirable' species of wildlife -- Criminal perceptions: availability of markets; high profit margins; low risk --
505 8 |a4.8. The impact of wildlife crime -- Targeted wildlife species: attraction and intended markets -- Risk to wildlife populations and habitat -- Public reaction to wildlife trafficking -- Direct economic impact -- ch. 5. The conduct and impact of enforcement activity -- 5.1. Introduction -- 5.2. Agency priorities and the impact -- 5.3. Interagency arrangements and cooperation -- Annual wildlife enforcement seminars -- 5.4. Information, investigation and technology -- Information collection and data handling -- The application of computer technology -- Information sharing -- 5.5. Providing intelligences support to wildlife enforcement -- The need for intelligence -- Existing intelligence resources -- Arguing the case for intelligence in wildlife enforcement -- Options for centralised intelligence support -- Design features for a national widlife intelligence unit -- Staffing the intelligence apparatus -- 5.6. Enforcement outcomes and the measurement --
505 8 |a5.7. Managing the enforcement of wildlife law -- Enforcement vis a vis public perceptions of crime -- 5.9. Attitude of the courts -- 5.10. Impact on criminals and other wrong-doers -- Repeat offences by individuals committing low-level crime -- Recidivism and more serious, organised wildlife crime -- Changes in criminal behaviour: the impact of enforcement action -- 5.11. International cooperative efforts in enforcement -- 5.12. Corruption of officials -- Public perception: folklore, assertion or evidence? -- Corrupt behaviour: opportunities and patterns -- Plcing corruption in perspective -- ch. 6. Key issues for wildlife futures -- 6.1. Perceptions of the wildlife 'problem' -- Personal belief systems and their impact on wildlife policy -- Wildlife species, interest groups and their focus -- Differentiating endagnered and at riks wildlife from other categories of wild species -- Understanding the disparate views: the public, industry and enforcement --
505 8 |a6.2. Issues for policy-making, legislation, regulation and strategy development -- Rules, regulations and common sense: generating and evaluating possibilities for change -- Emotional, cultural and scientific views of wildlife crime: seeking sensible compromise -- Formulating policies to suit specific risk categories of wildlife -- Developing safeguards for the continuance of gene pools -- Deterring crime and minimising illegal market opportunities -- Public education, the media and public involvement in countering wildlife crime -- ch. 7. Wildlife policy and practice: options for change -- 7.1. The wildlife policy setting -- Defining national environmental and conservation objectives -- Competing pressures on wildlife: illegal trafficking; threatened habitat; gene pool reduction; natural predation -- Developing holistic policy options: addressing total wildlife protection needs --
505 8 |a7.2. Policy development alternatives -- Federal and State/Territory legislation -- Enforcement roles and responsibilities -- 7.3. Conclusion -- appendix 1. Wildlife study: project directive and terms of references -- appendix 2. State and Territory wildlife legislation (includes table of comparison of trafficking provisions) -- appendix 3. Summary of Federal prosecutions under the Wildlife Protection (Regulation of Exports and Imports) Act 1982 -- appendix 4. Selected bibliography and further reading -- appendix 5. CITES: explanatory notes on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
540 |aCommonwealth of Australia 1997.
610 1 0 |aAustralia.|tWildlife Protection (Regulation of Exports and Imports) Act 1982.
610 1 4 |aAustralia.|tWildlife Protection (Regulation of Exports and Imports) Act 1982.
650 0 |aWild animal trade|xCorrupt practices|zAustralia.
650 0 |aEndangered species.
650 0 |aEndangered species|xLaw and legislation|zAustralia.
650 0 |aWildlife conservation|xLaw and legislation|zAustralia.
650 0 |aEndangered species|xGovernment policy|zAustralia.
650 0 |aWild animal trade|zAustralia|xCorrupt practices.
650 0 |aSmuggling|zAustralia|xPrevention.
650 0 4 |aWildlife conservation|xLaw and legislation|zAustralia.
650 0 4 |aEndangered species.
650 0 4 |aEndangered species|xLaw and legislation|zAustralia.
650 0 |aSmuggling|zAustralia|xPrevention.
710 1 |aAustralia.|bEnvironment Australia.
984 |aANL|cNL 639.90994 M138
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