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A Study of Inference in Standardized Reading Test Items and Its Relationship to Difficulty [microform] / Robert J. Marzano
Bib ID 5487877
Format BookBook, MicroformMicroform, OnlineOnline
Author
Marzano, Robert J
 
Online Versions
Description [Washington, D.C.] : Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse, 1987 
22 p. 
Summary

To study the relationship between inferences made on standardized reading tests and item difficulty, 50 items on the reading comprehension section of the Metropolitan Achievement Test were analyzed independently in this study by two raters using four general categories of inferences: (1) reference inferences, (2) between proposition inferences, (3) source inferences and (4) metalinguistic inferences. The items were in standard reading comprehension test format (reading passages followed by multiple choice items based on the passage). An inference was operationally defined as the mental process of inducing or deducing, as cued by the test item, information not explicitly stated in the test. No significant relationship was found between inference types and item difficulty; however, a significant relationship was found between a general measure of raw amount of information processed and item difficulty. Although most reading skill hierarchies assume that inferential cognitive operations are inherently more difficult than non-inferential operations, these findings suggest that either inferential cognitive operations are not inherently more difficult than non-inferential cognitive operations, or that the inferential cognitive operations have been internalized at the level of automaticity for school-aged test takers. (Twenty references are attached and two tables of data are included.) (NH)

Notes

Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.

Contract Number: 400-86-0002.

May also be available online. Address as at 14/8/18: https://eric.ed.gov/

Reproduction Microfiche. [Washington D.C.]: ERIC Clearinghouse microfiches : positive. 
Subjects Deep Structure.  |  Inferences.  |  Language Processing.  |  Learning Strategies.  |  Linguistic Theory.  |  Objective Tests.  |  Reading Comprehension.  |  Reading Tests.  |  Standardized Tests.  |  Test Items.  |  Metropolitan Achievement Tests  |  Test Analysis
Form/genre Reports, Research.
Other authors/contributors Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Aurora, CO
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