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Review of Winograd and Flores'"Understanding Computers and Cognition" [microform] : A Favorable Interpretation. ONR Technical Report #21 / William J. Clancey
Bib ID 5496615
Format BookBook, MicroformMicroform, OnlineOnline
Clancey, William J
Online Versions
Description [Washington, D.C.] : Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse, 1986 
27 p. 

Artificial Intelligence researchers and cognitive scientists commonly believe that thinking involves manipulating representations. Thinking involves search, inference, and making choices. This is how we model reasoning and what goes on in the brain is similar. Winograd and Flores present a radically different view, claiming that our knowledge is not represented in the brain at all, but rather consists of an unformalized shared background, from which we articulate representations in order to cope with new situations. In contrast, computer programs contain only pre-selected objects and properties, and there is no basis for moving beyond this initial formalization when breakdown occurs. Winograd and Flores provide convincing arguments with examples familiar to most artificial intelligence researchers. However, they significantly understate the role of representation in mediating intelligent behavior, specifically in the process of reflection, when representations are generated prior to physical action. Furthermore, they do not consider the practical benefits of expert systems and the extent of what can be accomplished. Nevertheless, the book is crisp and stimulating, and should make artificial intelligence researchers more cautious about what they are doing, more aware of the nature of formalization, and more open to alternative views. (15 references) (Author)


Sponsoring Agency: Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA. Personnel and Training Research Programs Office.

Sponsoring Agency: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, New York, NY.

Contract Number: N00014-85K-0305.

ERIC Note: For related reports, see IR 013 477-480.


May also be available online. Address as at 14/8/18:

Reproduction Microfiche. [Washington D.C.]: ERIC Clearinghouse microfiches : positive. 
Subjects Artificial Intelligence.  |  Behavior Theories.  |  Book Reviews.  |  Cognitive Processes.  |  Computer Software.  |  Intelligence.  |  Mediation Theory.  |  Models.  |  Programing.  |  Knowledge Representation
Other authors/contributors Stanford Univ., CA. Dept. of Computer Science
Available From ERIC 


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