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Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare [microform] : Definitions, Common Practice, Expected Outcomes, and a Nationwide Survey of Programs. Technical Report / Keith C. Russell and John C. Hendee
Bib ID 5694086
Format BookBook, MicroformMicroform, OnlineOnline
Russell, Keith C
Online Versions
Description [Washington, D.C.] : Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse, 2000 
88 p. 

Outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH) is an emerging mental health intervention/treatment to help adolescents overcome emotional, psychological, and addiction problems. Currently, over 100 OBH programs in the United States use elements of wilderness therapy to address adolescents' problem behaviors and foster responsibility and personal growth. Elements include immersion in an unfamiliar environment, group living with peers, individual and group therapy, and educational curricula. This publication includes a literature review and results of a nationwide survey of OBH programs. The literature review presents definitions and concepts and classifies two types of OBH programs: adjudicated and private placement programs. The review discusses four program models; theoretical orientations of OBH; three treatment phases; client characteristics; role of the treatment team in each phase; role of parents, family, or external authority; expected outcomes related to self-concept, knowledge and skills, behavioral self-awareness, and family relations; history and evolution of OBH; and research findings about OBH effects on self-concept, social skills, substance abuse, and recidivism. Survey responses were received from 86 of 116 identified OBH programs. Private placement programs greatly outnumbered adjudicated programs, and over 80 percent of respondents were licensed by a state agency. Most programs served White males aged 13-17, with a more diverse clientele in adjudicated programs. Most clients had tried other forms of counseling before OBH. OBH was a growing economic enterprise and generated substantial use of public lands and wilderness areas. (Contains 105 references, a list of programs surveyed, and the survey questionnaire.) (SV)


Availability: For full text:

ERIC Note: Publication is contribution No. 920 of the Idaho Forest, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station. Produced by the Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Research Cooperative, which is supported by the Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Industry Council.

May also be available online. Address as at 14/8/18:

Reproduction Microfiche. [Washington D.C.]: ERIC Clearinghouse microfiches : positive. 
Subjects Adolescents.  |  Behavior Problems.  |  Experiential Learning.  |  Group Counseling.  |  Individual Development.  |  Intervention.  |  Milieu Therapy.  |  Outcomes of Treatment.  |  Outdoor Education.  |  Wilderness.  |  Youth Programs.  |  Adventure Therapy Program Characteristics  |  Adjudicated Youth
Form/genre Reports, Research.  |  Tests/Questionnaires.
Other authors/contributors Hendee, John C., author  |  Idaho Univ., Moscow. Wilderness Research Center
Available From ERIC 


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