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thumb|Sir Matthew Decker, portrait by [[Theodorus Netscher (1661-1728), Fitzwilliam Museum]]
thumb|Arms of Decker: ''Argent, a demi-buck gules between his forelegs an arrow erected in pale or'', as confirmed in 1716 to Sir Matthew Decker, 1st Baronet, by Sir [[John Vanbrugh, Clarenceaux King of Arms, as used by his ancestors in HollandMiscellanea Genealogica Et Heraldica, Howard, Vol.4, 1892, p.289]]
thumb|Dirck Decker, father of Sir Matthew, with the [[Grote Kerk, Haarlem in the background.Slive 1671 portrait by Jan Andrea Lievens, Fitzwilliam Museum. Great grandfather of the founder of the Fitzwilliam Museum]]
thumb|Monument to Sir Matthew Decker, 1st Baronet, Church of St Mary Magdalene, Richmond, showing the arms of Decker impaling Watkins ''Azure, a fess vair between three leopard's faces jessant-de-lys or''
Sir Matthew Decker, 1st Baronet (1679 – 18 March 1749) (Dutch: Mattijs Decker) of Richmond Green in Surrey, was a Dutch-born English merchant and economist who served as a Member of Parliament for Bishop's Castle in Shropshire from 1719 to 1722. He was a governor of the South Sea Company from 1711 to 1712, and a Director of the East India Company from 1713 to 1743. His published works which show him as "such a strong supporter of the doctrine of free trade as to rank as one of the most important forerunners of Adam Smith",1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 7
Decker, Sir Matthew proposed amongst other measures, to abolish customs duties and replace them with a tax upon houses, to abolish the duty on tea replacing it with a licence duty on households wishing to consume it, and to repeal import duties and bounties in general. At his house in Richmond he amassed a large collection of art, including many Dutch paintings, which later formed the core of the collection of the Fitzwilliam Museum, founded by his grandson. He was a pioneer in the growing of exotic fruits in England, including pineapple and lemon, in his heated greenhouses at Richmond.

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